12th Class / 2nd Year Test Series – Test Session
To evaluate the studies of a student, the test is compulsory. A good test series enhances the abilities of the students and polishes exam skills. Chapter-Wise Tests are of vital importance as they make more perfect a student’s preparation for the annual examination more. Science subjects are conceptual subjects, that is why chapter-wise test series of science subjects should be conducted with great care. Each subject in the course of studies has its own value and it must be prepared well to get good marks in house exams and annual examination.
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With thanks to Sir Nauman Sadaf.
- 12th Class Smart Syllabus Full-Book Test Series with Different Versions:
- 12th Class Physics Full-Book Tests, Download Link: Physics
- 12th Class Mathematics Full-Book Tests, Download Link: Mathematics
- 12th Class Chemistry Full-Book Tests, Download Link: Chemistry
- 12th Class Computer Science Full-Book Tests, Download Link: Computer Science
- 12th Class Biology Full-Book Tests, Download Link: Biology
- 12th Class Pakistan Studies Full-Book Tests, Download Link: Pakistan Studies
Courtesy: Sir Nauman Sadaf
12th Class Biology
Answer the Following Long Questions ۔
i) Explain the phenomenon of Osmoregulation in plants ?
ii) Discuss the Liver as an excretory organ ?
iii) Explain working of Nephron in Human Kidney ?
iv) Describe the structure of Nephron ?
v) Discuss Kidney problems and their cures ?
vi) What is Renal Failure ? Describe its cure ?
vii) Describe thermoregulatory strategies in Mammals including human in cold temperature ?
viii) Describe the significance of secondary growth ?
ix) Give structure of Skeletal Muscles ?
x) How nerve impulse in passed from one neuron to another neuron ? Explain .
xi) What is Central Nervous System ? Explain structure and function of Forebrain .
xii) Discuss hormones of anterior Lobe of pituitary gland ?
xiii) Write a note on ” Fruit Set ” and ” Fruit Ripening ” ?
xiv) What is parthenoearpy ? How fruit is ripened ?
xv) Define photoperiodism . Explain role of phytochromes in photoperiodism ?
xvi) Discuss the external factors affecting growth in plants ?
xvii) Write a note on differentiation ?
xviii) Explain abnormal development ?
xix) Explain briefly Watson and Crick Model of DNA ?
xx) Describe different types of RNA with their functions ?
xxi) Write a note one Genetic Code ?
xxii) Define and explain test cross ?
xxiii) Describe the phenomenon of sex linkage ?
xxiv) Discuss evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes ?
xxv) Describe the evidence of evolution from comparative anatomy ?
xxvi) Write a note on grazing ?
xxvii) Describe deforestation and afforestation ?
xxviii) Describe the importance of forests ?
xxix) Write a note on green house effects ?
xxx) Describe the causes and effects of Acid Rain ?
Answer the following short questions.
i) Differentiate between hypotonic and hypertonic solution ?
ii) Differentiate between hydrophytes and mesophytes ?
iii) What are Xerophytes ? Give its examples ?
iv) Define anhydribiosis with an example ?
v) Give the role of contractile vacuole ?
vi) Define anhydrobiosis ?
vii) Define excretophore . / What are extretophores & Why ?
viii) Give structural formulae of Urea and uric Acid ?
ix) Why ammonia is more toxic than other nitrogenous wastes ?
x) Write two types of synthesis functions of liver and effects on homeostasis ?
xi) Briefly describe urea cycle and also draw it . OR Draw & label the urea cycle ?
xii) What are effects of ADH and Aldosterone on work of nephron ?
xiii) Explain briefly glomerular filtrate ?
xiv) What are juxtamedullary nephrons ?
xv) Differentiate between re-absorption and secretion in nephron ?
xvi) What is renal failure ?
xvii) Write different methods of kidney stone removal ?
xviii) Differentiate between haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis ?
xix) Give adaptations of marine fish for its survival in cold environment ?
xx) What is Pyrexia ?
xxi) Define the given terms : (1) Hypertonic environment (2) Hypotonic environment
xxii) Enlist the three steps in urine formation in human ?
xxiii) Differentiate between Pyrexia and Pyrogens ?
xxiv) What are behaviroural adaptations to regulate heat exchange between animals and environment ?
xxv) Briefly describe hemodialysis ?
xxvi) Account one each main adaptation in plants to high and low temperature ?
xxvii) Define tonoplast , give its function as well ?
xxviii) Compare epicuticle and procuticle ?
xxix) Define moulting ( Ecdysis ) . Give its one importance ?
xxx) Define is cartilage ? Give its two types .
xxxi) Differentiate between cartilage and bones ?
xxxii) Which kinds of cells are responsible for bone of formation ? Give their name .
xxxiii) Give classification of vertebral column .
xxxiv) Explain the ball and socket joints and give an example ?
xxxv) What is arthritis ?
xxxvi) How the muscle fatigue is resulted ?
xxxvii) What is ” All or None response ” ?
xxxviii) What is foramen triosseum ? How it is formed ?
xxxix) Discuss the structure and functions of collenchyma cells in plants ?
xl) Name the bones of pectoral and pelvic girdle ?
xli) What are synovial joint ? Write the name of its two types ?
xlii) Give two commercial application of ethane . Give commercial application of ethane ?
xliii) What are commercial applications of abscisis acid ?
xliv) Write down four functions of auxin . Write down two uses of auxin .
xlv) Mention the relative abundance and distribution of receptors in human skin ?
xlvi) What is neurogila ? Give its role .
xlvii) Differentiate between axons and dendrites ?
xlviii) Differentiate between reflex arc and reflex action ?
xlix) What do you know about saltatory nerve ?
l) Differentiate between resting membrane potential and active membrane potential ?
li) Name various structures that protect our brain ?
lii) Differentiate between nerves and ganglia ?
liii) What is action of nicotine on co-ordination ?
liv) Write a note on Alzheimer’s disease ?
lv) What is Parkinson’s disease ?
lvi) What are the functions of oxytocin hormones ?
lvii) How Ca++ concentration in human blood is regulated ?
lviii) Give the role of insulin and glucagon ?
lix) Name hormones released by adrenal gland ?
lx) Give role of human gut as endocrine tissue ?
lxi) How communication across the synapse occurs ?
lxii) Why seed plants are predominantly present all around as ?
lxiii) What is diplohaplontic life cycle ? Give its types .
lxiv) Define parthenocarpy . How it is artificially induced ?
lxv) What is tissue culture ? Explain .
lxvi) Differentiate between tissue culture and cloning ?
lxvii) Differentiate between identical twins and triplets ?
lxviii) What are functions of sertoli cells ?
lxix) What is menopause ? At which age it starts .
lxx) Give the role of oxytocin ?
lxxi) What is corpus luteum ? Give its function .
lxxii) What is oestrous cycle ?
lxxiii) Define terms menstruation and menopause ?
lxxiv) What is after birth ?
lxxv) Differentiate between lactation and gestation ?
lxxvi) How implantation differes from gestation ?
lxxvii) What are test tube babies ? Discuss it .
lxxviii) For which the abbreviation of STD is used ?
lxxix) Explain the role of gonadotropins in human female ?
lxxx) Differentiate between growth and embryonic development ?
lxxxi) Differentiate between growth and development ?
lxxxii) What is growth ? Mention its types .
lxxxiii) Differentiate between determinate and indeterminate growth ?
lxxxiv) Differentiate between primary growth and secondary growth in plant ?
lxxxv) Name the phases of plants growth ?
lxxxvi) What is compensatory effect ?
lxxxvii) What is primitive streak ?
lxxxviii) What is morula ?
lxxxix) Differentiate between epiclast and hypoblast ?
xc) What is cleavage ?
xci) What is coelom ?
xcii) What is discoidal cleavage ?
xciii) Give the role of cytoplasm in the development of an Ascidian ?
xciv) What are metabolic defects and give two examples ?
xcv) What are teratogens ? Give an example .
xcvi) What is Hensen’s node ?
xcvii) Compare telocentric and acrocentric chromosomes ?
xcviii) Differentiate between chromosome and nucleosome ?
xcix) What is transformation ?
c) Differentiate between pyrimidines and purines ?
ci) Give structural formula of adenine and thymine ?
cii) What is Semi – Conservative Model of DNA Replication ?
ciii) Write role of DNA ligase ?
civ) What is one-gene one polypeptide hypothesis ?
cv) Differentiate between transcription and translation ?
cvi) What is transcription bubble ? How is it formed .
cvii) What is the function of RNA polymerases in transcription ?
cviii) How is newly synthesized mRNA protected after transcription ?
cix) Enlist non sense codons and their function ?
cx) Define genetic code ?
cxi) What is translation ?
cxii) Where codon and anticodon are situated ?
cxiii) Describe briefly sickle cell anemia ?
cxiv) What is mutation ? Give its name of two classes .
cxv) What are mutagens ? Give one example .
cxvi) What is inversion ?
cxvii) What are chromosomal abberrations ? Quote example as well .
cxviii) Name three types of RNA’s . Give function of each RNA .
cxix) Write down the structural formulae of cytosine and thyamine ?
cxx) How chromatin differs from chromosomes ?
cxxi) Define cell cycle . Give its phases ?
cxxii) Draw cell cycle ?
cxxiii) How cytokinesis differ in plant and animal cell ?
cxxiv) Give four importance of mitosis ?
cxxv) Write down the events of metaphase of mitosis ?
cxxvi) How cytokinesis occur in plants ?
cxxvii) Differentiate between malignent and benign tumor ?
cxxviii) Give four important functions of mitosis ?
cxxix) Discuss diakinesis in meiosis ?
cxxx) Give the chances of occurrence of Down’s syndrome in teenage mothers and a forty years old mother’s off spring ?
cxxxi) Give affects of XYY Klinefelter syndrome ?
cxxxii) What is Klinfelter’s syndrome ?
cxxxiii) How meiosis plays its role in producing genetic variations ?
cxxxiv) Differentiate between dominant and recessive trails ?
cxxxv) Differentiate between monohybrid and dihybrid cross ?
cxxxvi) Differentiate between population & gene pool ?
cxxxvii) What is dominance ?
cxxxviii) Discuss over dominance . Give an example ?
cxxxix) What is contribution of Carl Correns in genetics ?
cxl) Differentiate between co – dominance and over – dominance ?
cxli) Why is blood group AB called as universal recipient ?
cxlii) Define gene linkage and gene linkage groups ?
cxliii) What is tetrad ?
cxliv) Explain testicular feminization syndrome ?
cxlv) Define product rule and psedoautosomal genes ?
cxlvi) What is MODY ? Write its causes . Explain the term MODY ?
cxlvii) An Rh– woman is married to an Rh+ man whose father was also Rh– . What is the probable risk of erythroblastosis . Foetalis in their babies ?
cxlviii) Define crossing over . Give its importance ?
cxlix) Write the way by which bacterial cells become permeable of plasmid ?
cl) Define biotechnology . Name two biotechnology products ?
cli) What are restriction enzymes ? Give an example .
clii) What is recombinant DNA technology ?
cliii) What are palindromic sequences ? Give their significance .
cliv) What are restriction enzymes ? Who first isolated them ?
clv) Differentiate between Sanger’s method and Maxam-Gilbert method of gene sequencing ?
clvi) What are bioreactors ?
clvii) What are transgenic Bacteria ?
clviii) What is cystic frbrosis ?
clix) What is gene therapy ?
clx) What Gottlieb Haberlandt said that plant cells are totiopotent ?
clxi) What are vestigial organ ? Give one example .
clxii) What is role of geographical barriers in evolution ?
clxiii) Explain the term homology with a suitable example ?
clxiv) What is Neo-Darwinism ?
clxv) Name any four factors affecting gene frequency ?
clxvi) What is membrane invagination hypothesis ?
clxvii) Name three levels of integration in community ?
clxviii) Differentiate between biosphere and Niche ?
clxix) Define humus ?
clxx) What are biotic components of an ecosystem ?
clxxi) Define Biotic and A-biotic factors of an ecosystem ?
clxxii) What do you understand by the term ” trophic level ” ?
clxxiii) Give significance of predation ?
clxxiv) What is parasitism ?
clxxv) What are root nodules ? Give their importance .
clxxvi) What are lichens and mycorrhiza ?
clxxvii) Differentiate between mutualism and commensalism ?
clxxviii) What is symbiosis ? Give one example .
clxxix) Differentiate between nitrification and denitrification ?
clxxx) How nitrogen depletion from soil is being overcome in nature ?
clxxxi) Define ammonification ?
clxxxii) Define the term ” Plant Biomass ” ?
clxxxiii) Explain Mycorrhiza with an example ?
clxxxiv) What is average rainfall in temperature deciduous forests ?
clxxxv) Enlist some dominant plants that occur in temperate deciduous forest ?
clxxxvi) What is the difference between savanna and prairies ?
clxxxvii) Write down soil conditions of grassland ecosystem ?
clxxxviii) Give the location of desert biomes . Write the name of desert in western and southern Punjab ?
clxxxix) Define Desertification ?
cxc) What is limnetic zone , mention its life ?
cxci) What are renewable and non-renewable resources ? Give examples .
cxcii) Explain briefly nutrient cycle in nature ?
cxciii) Give three importance of forest ?
cxciv) What is deforestation ?
cxcv) What is acid rain ? Give four effects of acid rain .
cxcvi) How chlorine is responsible for ozone depletion ?
cxcvii) What are industrial effluents ? Give their role .
cxcviii) Explain about industrial effluents ?
cxcix) What are industrial Effluents ? Give their role .
cc) What is the importance of ozone layer ?