12th Class / 2nd Year Test Series – Test Session
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12th Class Biology
Answer the Following Long Questions ۔
i) Explain the phenomenon of Osmoregulation in plants ?
ii) Discuss the Liver as an excretory organ ?
iii) Explain working of Nephron in Human Kidney ?
iv) Describe the structure of Nephron ?
v) Discuss Kidney problems and their cures ?
vi) What is Renal Failure ? Describe its cure ?
vii) Describe thermoregulatory strategies in Mammals including human in cold temperature ?
viii) Describe the significance of secondary growth ?
ix) Give structure of Skeletal Muscles ?
x) How nerve impulse in passed from one neuron to another neuron ? Explain .
xi) What is Central Nervous System ? Explain structure and function of Forebrain .
xii) Discuss hormones of anterior Lobe of pituitary gland ?
xiii) Write a note on ” Fruit Set ” and ” Fruit Ripening ” ?
xiv) What is parthenoearpy ? How fruit is ripened ?
xv) Define photoperiodism . Explain role of phytochromes in photoperiodism ?
xvi) Discuss the external factors affecting growth in plants ?
xvii) Write a note on differentiation ?
xviii) Explain abnormal development ?
xix) Explain briefly Watson and Crick Model of DNA ?
xx) Describe different types of RNA with their functions ?
xxi) Write a note one Genetic Code ?
xxii) Define and explain test cross ?
xxiii) Describe the phenomenon of sex linkage ?
xxiv) Discuss evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes ?
xxv) Describe the evidence of evolution from comparative anatomy ?
xxvi) Write a note on grazing ?
xxvii) Describe deforestation and afforestation ?
xxviii) Describe the importance of forests ?
xxix) Write a note on green house effects ?
xxx) Describe the causes and effects of Acid Rain ?
Answer the following short questions.
i) Differentiate between hypotonic and hypertonic solution ?
ii) Differentiate between hydrophytes and mesophytes ?
iii) What are Xerophytes ? Give its examples ?
iv) Define anhydribiosis with an example ?
v) Give the role of contractile vacuole ?
vi) Define anhydrobiosis ?
vii) Define excretophore . / What are extretophores & Why ?
viii) Give structural formulae of Urea and uric Acid ?
ix) Why ammonia is more toxic than other nitrogenous wastes ?
x) Write two types of synthesis functions of liver and effects on homeostasis ?
xi) Briefly describe urea cycle and also draw it . OR Draw & label the urea cycle ?
xii) What are effects of ADH and Aldosterone on work of nephron ?
xiii) Explain briefly glomerular filtrate ?
xiv) What are juxtamedullary nephrons ?
xv) Differentiate between re-absorption and secretion in nephron ?
xvi) What is renal failure ?
xvii) Write different methods of kidney stone removal ?
xviii) Differentiate between haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis ?
xix) Give adaptations of marine fish for its survival in cold environment ?
xx) What is Pyrexia ?
xxi) Define the given terms : (1) Hypertonic environment (2) Hypotonic environment
xxii) Enlist the three steps in urine formation in human ?
xxiii) Differentiate between Pyrexia and Pyrogens ?
xxiv) What are behaviroural adaptations to regulate heat exchange between animals and environment ?
xxv) Briefly describe hemodialysis ?
xxvi) Account one each main adaptation in plants to high and low temperature ?
xxvii) Define tonoplast , give its function as well ?
xxviii) Compare epicuticle and procuticle ?
xxix) Define moulting ( Ecdysis ) . Give its one importance ?
xxx) Define is cartilage ? Give its two types .
xxxi) Differentiate between cartilage and bones ?
xxxii) Which kinds of cells are responsible for bone of formation ? Give their name .
xxxiii) Give classification of vertebral column .
xxxiv) Explain the ball and socket joints and give an example ?
xxxv) What is arthritis ?
xxxvi) How the muscle fatigue is resulted ?
xxxvii) What is ” All or None response ” ?
xxxviii) What is foramen triosseum ? How it is formed ?
xxxix) Discuss the structure and functions of collenchyma cells in plants ?
xl) Name the bones of pectoral and pelvic girdle ?
xli) What are synovial joint ? Write the name of its two types ?
xlii) Give two commercial application of ethane . Give commercial application of ethane ?
xliii) What are commercial applications of abscisis acid ?
xliv) Write down four functions of auxin . Write down two uses of auxin .
xlv) Mention the relative abundance and distribution of receptors in human skin ?
xlvi) What is neurogila ? Give its role .
xlvii) Differentiate between axons and dendrites ?
xlviii) Differentiate between reflex arc and reflex action ?
xlix) What do you know about saltatory nerve ?
l) Differentiate between resting membrane potential and active membrane potential ?
li) Name various structures that protect our brain ?
lii) Differentiate between nerves and ganglia ?
liii) What is action of nicotine on co-ordination ?
liv) Write a note on Alzheimer’s disease ?
lv) What is Parkinson’s disease ?
lvi) What are the functions of oxytocin hormones ?
lvii) How Ca++ concentration in human blood is regulated ?
lviii) Give the role of insulin and glucagon ?
lix) Name hormones released by adrenal gland ?
lx) Give role of human gut as endocrine tissue ?
lxi) How communication across the synapse occurs ?
lxii) Why seed plants are predominantly present all around as ?
lxiii) What is diplohaplontic life cycle ? Give its types .
lxiv) Define parthenocarpy . How it is artificially induced ?
lxv) What is tissue culture ? Explain .
lxvi) Differentiate between tissue culture and cloning ?
lxvii) Differentiate between identical twins and triplets ?
lxviii) What are functions of sertoli cells ?
lxix) What is menopause ? At which age it starts .
lxx) Give the role of oxytocin ?
lxxi) What is corpus luteum ? Give its function .
lxxii) What is oestrous cycle ?
lxxiii) Define terms menstruation and menopause ?
lxxiv) What is after birth ?
lxxv) Differentiate between lactation and gestation ?
lxxvi) How implantation differes from gestation ?
lxxvii) What are test tube babies ? Discuss it .
lxxviii) For which the abbreviation of STD is used ?
lxxix) Explain the role of gonadotropins in human female ?
lxxx) Differentiate between growth and embryonic development ?
lxxxi) Differentiate between growth and development ?
lxxxii) What is growth ? Mention its types .
lxxxiii) Differentiate between determinate and indeterminate growth ?
lxxxiv) Differentiate between primary growth and secondary growth in plant ?
lxxxv) Name the phases of plants growth ?
lxxxvi) What is compensatory effect ?
lxxxvii) What is primitive streak ?
lxxxviii) What is morula ?
lxxxix) Differentiate between epiclast and hypoblast ?
xc) What is cleavage ?
xci) What is coelom ?
xcii) What is discoidal cleavage ?
xciii) Give the role of cytoplasm in the development of an Ascidian ?
xciv) What are metabolic defects and give two examples ?
xcv) What are teratogens ? Give an example .
xcvi) What is Hensen’s node ?
xcvii) Compare telocentric and acrocentric chromosomes ?
xcviii) Differentiate between chromosome and nucleosome ?
xcix) What is transformation ?
c) Differentiate between pyrimidines and purines ?
ci) Give structural formula of adenine and thymine ?
cii) What is Semi – Conservative Model of DNA Replication ?
ciii) Write role of DNA ligase ?
civ) What is one-gene one polypeptide hypothesis ?
cv) Differentiate between transcription and translation ?
cvi) What is transcription bubble ? How is it formed .
cvii) What is the function of RNA polymerases in transcription ?
cviii) How is newly synthesized mRNA protected after transcription ?
cix) Enlist non sense codons and their function ?
cx) Define genetic code ?
cxi) What is translation ?
cxii) Where codon and anticodon are situated ?
cxiii) Describe briefly sickle cell anemia ?
cxiv) What is mutation ? Give its name of two classes .
cxv) What are mutagens ? Give one example .
cxvi) What is inversion ?
cxvii) What are chromosomal abberrations ? Quote example as well .
cxviii) Name three types of RNA’s . Give function of each RNA .
cxix) Write down the structural formulae of cytosine and thyamine ?
cxx) How chromatin differs from chromosomes ?
cxxi) Define cell cycle . Give its phases ?
cxxii) Draw cell cycle ?
cxxiii) How cytokinesis differ in plant and animal cell ?
cxxiv) Give four importance of mitosis ?
cxxv) Write down the events of metaphase of mitosis ?
cxxvi) How cytokinesis occur in plants ?
cxxvii) Differentiate between malignent and benign tumor ?
cxxviii) Give four important functions of mitosis ?
cxxix) Discuss diakinesis in meiosis ?
cxxx) Give the chances of occurrence of Down’s syndrome in teenage mothers and a forty years old mother’s off spring ?
cxxxi) Give affects of XYY Klinefelter syndrome ?
cxxxii) What is Klinfelter’s syndrome ?
cxxxiii) How meiosis plays its role in producing genetic variations ?
cxxxiv) Differentiate between dominant and recessive trails ?
cxxxv) Differentiate between monohybrid and dihybrid cross ?
cxxxvi) Differentiate between population & gene pool ?
cxxxvii) What is dominance ?
cxxxviii) Discuss over dominance . Give an example ?
cxxxix) What is contribution of Carl Correns in genetics ?
cxl) Differentiate between co – dominance and over – dominance ?
cxli) Why is blood group AB called as universal recipient ?
cxlii) Define gene linkage and gene linkage groups ?
cxliii) What is tetrad ?
cxliv) Explain testicular feminization syndrome ?
cxlv) Define product rule and psedoautosomal genes ?
cxlvi) What is MODY ? Write its causes . Explain the term MODY ?
cxlvii) An Rh– woman is married to an Rh+ man whose father was also Rh– . What is the probable risk of erythroblastosis . Foetalis in their babies ?
cxlviii) Define crossing over . Give its importance ?
cxlix) Write the way by which bacterial cells become permeable of plasmid ?
cl) Define biotechnology . Name two biotechnology products ?
cli) What are restriction enzymes ? Give an example .
clii) What is recombinant DNA technology ?
cliii) What are palindromic sequences ? Give their significance .
cliv) What are restriction enzymes ? Who first isolated them ?
clv) Differentiate between Sanger’s method and Maxam-Gilbert method of gene sequencing ?
clvi) What are bioreactors ?
clvii) What are transgenic Bacteria ?
clviii) What is cystic frbrosis ?
clix) What is gene therapy ?
clx) What Gottlieb Haberlandt said that plant cells are totiopotent ?
clxi) What are vestigial organ ? Give one example .
clxii) What is role of geographical barriers in evolution ?
clxiii) Explain the term homology with a suitable example ?
clxiv) What is Neo-Darwinism ?
clxv) Name any four factors affecting gene frequency ?
clxvi) What is membrane invagination hypothesis ?
clxvii) Name three levels of integration in community ?
clxviii) Differentiate between biosphere and Niche ?
clxix) Define humus ?
clxx) What are biotic components of an ecosystem ?
clxxi) Define Biotic and A-biotic factors of an ecosystem ?
clxxii) What do you understand by the term ” trophic level ” ?
clxxiii) Give significance of predation ?
clxxiv) What is parasitism ?
clxxv) What are root nodules ? Give their importance .
clxxvi) What are lichens and mycorrhiza ?
clxxvii) Differentiate between mutualism and commensalism ?
clxxviii) What is symbiosis ? Give one example .
clxxix) Differentiate between nitrification and denitrification ?
clxxx) How nitrogen depletion from soil is being overcome in nature ?
clxxxi) Define ammonification ?
clxxxii) Define the term ” Plant Biomass ” ?
clxxxiii) Explain Mycorrhiza with an example ?
clxxxiv) What is average rainfall in temperature deciduous forests ?
clxxxv) Enlist some dominant plants that occur in temperate deciduous forest ?
clxxxvi) What is the difference between savanna and prairies ?
clxxxvii) Write down soil conditions of grassland ecosystem ?
clxxxviii) Give the location of desert biomes . Write the name of desert in western and southern Punjab ?
clxxxix) Define Desertification ?
cxc) What is limnetic zone , mention its life ?
cxci) What are renewable and non-renewable resources ? Give examples .
cxcii) Explain briefly nutrient cycle in nature ?
cxciii) Give three importance of forest ?
cxciv) What is deforestation ?
cxcv) What is acid rain ? Give four effects of acid rain .
cxcvi) How chlorine is responsible for ozone depletion ?
cxcvii) What are industrial effluents ? Give their role .
cxcviii) Explain about industrial effluents ?
cxcix) What are industrial Effluents ? Give their role .
cc) What is the importance of ozone layer ?
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