11th / 1st Year Biology Important Editable Question Bank

1st Year / 11th Biology Question Bank (Short & Long Questions)

  1. Answer the Following Long Questions  
  1. i) Explain any three steps in biological methods.
  2. ii) Write a note on the biological method.
  3. iii) Give functions of proteins.
  4. iv) Describe the structure and functions of the plasma membrane.
  5. v) Give account of structure and function of mitochondria.
  6. vi) Write a note on any two viral diseases.
  7. vii) Explain lytic cycle of bacteriophages with diagram.
  8. viii) Discuss five kingdom system of classification.
  9. ix) What preventive measures should be observed to avoid diseases ?
  10. x) Describe acylglycerols in details ?
  11. xi) What are phospholipids ?
  12. xii) What functions are performed by proteins in the bodies of living organisms ?
  13. xiii) Classify proteins according to their structure ?
  14. xiv) Write down any eight functions of proteins ?
  15. xv) Give the importance of proteins ?
  16. xvi) Describe the structure and function of plasma membrane ?
  17. xvii) Describe the Fluid Mosaic model of plasma membrane ?
  18. xviii) Write note on Ribosomes ?
  19. xix) Describe the structure and function of Mithochondria ?
  20. xx) Show the Similarities and differences in structure and functions of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts ?
  21. xxi) Write a note on Chloroplasts ?
  22. xxii) What do you know about mutualistic nutrition in Fungi ?
  23. xxiii) Write a detailed note on mycorrhizae ?
  24. xxiv) How asexual reproduction occurs in fungi ?
  25. xxv) Give an account of Ascomycotes ?
  26. xxvi) Enlist the steps involved in evolution of seed . Describe any two in detail ?
  27. xxvii) Sketch the Z-Scheme ?
  28. xxviii) Discuss the non-cyclic phosphorylation with diagram ?
  29. xxix) Explain light dependent reaction in detail ?
  30. xxx) Write a note on anorexia nervosa ?
  31. xxxi) Write a note on the following .
    (1) Obesity         (2) Bulimia nervosa
  32. xxxii) Give functions of lymphatic system ?
  33. xxxiii) Write a note on non-cyclic phosphorylation in detail.
  34. xxxiv) Sketch the z-Scheme.
  35. xxxv) Write a note on anorexia nervosa.
  36. xxxvi) Describe any two diseases related to nutrition.
  37. xxxvii) Explain the digestion in Oral Cavity of man.
  38. xxxviii) Explain the biological method for solving a biological problem. How do deductive and inductive reasoning play an important role in it?
  39. xxxix) What is the role of the study of Biology in the welfareof mankind?
  40. xl) Describe the importance of water for life.
  41. xli) Compare structure and function of chloroplasts and mitochondria.
  42. xlii) Write Note on : Shape of bacteria
  43. xliii) Summarize differentiating/distinguishing characteristics of four main groups of Fungi, and give two common examples of each group.
  44. xliv) Describe evolution of leaf and its importance in vascular plants.
  45. xlv) In what way do the lowering plants differ from the rest of the seed plants? What is the stigma? Is fertilization in angiosperms direct or indirect? From what tissue does angiosperm fruit develop?
  46. xlvi) Give an account of light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
  47. xlvii) In what ways is air a better respiratory medium than water?
  48. xlviii) Discuss the mechanical aspects of breathing in man.
  49. xlix) Describe the mechanism of opening and closing of stomata.
  50. l) How does the pressure-low theory explain the movement of sugars through a plant?



Answer the following short questions ۔

  1. i) What is meant by phylogenetic system of classification?
  2. ii) Define species with example.
  3. iii) Write four postulates of germ theory of disease.
  4. iv) Differentiate between streptococcus and staphylococcus.
  5. v) Name taxonomic group of bacteria on the basis of presence of flagella, their number and pattern of attachment.
  6. vi) What are Germ positive bacteria?
  7. vii) What is periplasmic space? In which bacteria it is present?
  8. viii) Write two distinguishing characters of kingdom protista ?
  9. ix) Write down the importance of sponges.
  10. x) Name any four phylum of protoctisa ?
  11. xi) Compare forms and locomotion of zooflagellates and ciliates ?
  12. xii) What is Trypanosoma ? What disease does it cause ?
  13. xiii) Differentiate between micronucleus and macronucleus in ciliates ?
  14. xiv) Write any two characteristics of foraminifera ?
  15. xv) How are foraminiferans source of lime stone ?
  16. xvi) Why are fats considered as high energy compounds?
  17. xvii) List two conditions that destroy enzymatic activity by disrupting bonds between the atoms in an enzyme.
  18. xviii) Describe various movements involved in the transport of materials across the cell membrane.
  19. xix) List the processes blocked by mitochondrial failure in a cell.
  20. xx) How does autophagy help in converting a tadpole larva into an adult amphibian?
  21. xxi) Name general characteristics that could be used to define the prokaryotes ?
  22. xxii) What are mesosomes and some of their possible functions?
  23. xxiii) A gram stained discharge from an dbcess shows cocci in irregular grape like clusters. What is the most likely genus of this bacterium
  24. xxiv) What is the composition of fungal cell wall and how is this composition advantageous to fungi?
  25. xxv) To which phyla do yeasts belong? How do they differ from other fungi?
  26. xxvi) By what means can individuals in imperfect fungi be classfied?
  27. xxvii) Give a single characteristic that differentiates Zygomycota from Basidiomycota.
  28. xxviii) Why is green mold more likely to contaminate an orange kept in a refrigerator than are bacteria?
  29. xxix) What is the importance of  Heterospory.
  30. xxx) What is the importance of  Double fertilization.
  31. xxxi) Can we get along without large intestine? if not why?
  32. xxxii) Distinguish between Name one parasitic plant ?
  33. xxxiii) Describe its method of nutrition, explaining why normal nutrition is not possible.
  34. xxxiv) How do the digestive tract of herbivores differ from those of carnivores?
  35. xxxv) How does air always remain in the lungs of human beings?
  36. xxxvi) What are the products which are produced during photorespiration?
  37. xxxvii) How much denser is a water medium than air medium for exchange of respiratory gases?
  38. xxxviii) Define Ecology and Histology ?
  39. xxxix) Differentiate between anatomy and morphology ?
  40. xl) Define Biotechnology and Microbiology ?
  41. xli) Define the term Fresh water Biology and Biotechnology ?
  42. xlii) Define a Law ?
  43. xliii) Define cloning ?
  44. xliv) Define protective role of water ?
  45. xlv) What is heat capacity of water ? Give its importance .
  46. xlvi) What do you know about ionization of water ?
  47. xlvii) How are carbohydrates chemically defined ? Give its Classes .
  48. xlviii) How are the specific properties of a protein determined ?
  49. xlix) Why is the arrangement of amino acids in a protein molecule highly specific for its proper functioning ?
  50. l) What are lipoproteins ?
  51. li) What are globular proteins ? Give examples .
  52. lii) Why are nucleic acids called so ?
  53. liii) What pentose sugar is found in nucleotides ?
  54. liv) What nitrogenous bases are present in nucleic acids ?
  55. lv) What is polynucleotide chain ?
  56. lvi) Define enzymes ?
  57. lvii) How is the Apoenzyme different from Holoenzyme ?
  58. lviii) Give any two characteristics of enzymes ?
  59. lix) Differentiate between substrate and active site of enzymes ?
  60. lx) Differentiate between substrate and products ?
  61. lxi) What are allosteric enzymes ?
  62. lxii) What is an inhibitor ?
  63. lxiii) What is ultracentrifugation ?
  64. lxiv) What is unit membrane model ?
  65. lxv) What is plasmodesmata ?
  66. lxvi) Define polysome and Ribosome ?
  67. lxvii) Differentiate between golgi complex and golgi apparatus ?
  68. lxviii) Define congenital disease . Give example ?
  69. lxix) What are autophagosomes ?
  70. lxx) Define storage disease . Write its names also ?
  71. lxxi) What is glyogenosis type II disease ?
  72. lxxii) What is the function of vacuoles in plants ?
  73. lxxiii) Give any two important functions of centrioles ?
  74. lxxiv) Why is mitochondrion called self replicating organelle ?
  75. lxxv) What is stroma ?
  76. lxxvi) What are plasmids ?
  77. lxxvii) What are plasmids ? Give its importance .
  78. lxxviii) Define species and virology ?
  79. lxxix) Give biological classification of corn , Zea Mays ?
  80. lxxx) Give disadvantages of common names ?
  81. lxxxi) What were the suggestions of Hackel and E . Chatton to accomodate Euglena ?
  82. lxxxii) What are the basis of five kingdom system proposed by Robert Whittaker ?
  83. lxxxiii) Define the terms autotrophs and heterotrophs ?
  84. lxxxiv) From where the word virus derived ?
  85. lxxxv) Does viruses have their metabolic machinery ?
  86. lxxxvi) Write about Edward jenner work ?
  87. lxxxvii) What is the size of viruses ?
  88. lxxxviii) What is a virion ?
  89. lxxxix) What are Capsomeres ? How many Capsomeres are present in the Capsids of Herpes Virus ?
  90. xc) Write structural foam of Bacteriophage ?
  91. xci) What is reverse transcriptase ? Give its function .
  92. xcii) How AIDS spread ?
  93. xciii) Write down the cause of measles and small pox ?
  94. xciv) What are different shapes of viruses ?
  95. xcv) Name some viral diseases which are common in Pakistan ?
  96. xcvi) What is herpes simplex ?
  97. xcvii) What do you know about Polio or Poliomyelitis ?
  98. xcviii) Write about the recently discovered huge bacterium ?
  99. xcix) Give misuse of antibiotics ?
  100. c) Give the importance of cyanobacteria ?
  101. ci) Write down any two characteristics of protists ?
  102. cii) What are ciliates ?
  103. ciii) Write down two characteristics of ciliates ?
  104. civ) Write two characters of giant amoeba ?
  105. cv) Differentiate between flagellum and flagellin ?
  106. cvi) What is Trypanosoma ? What disease it cause .
  107. cvii) Name Four Phyla of Algae ?
  108. cviii) Differentiate between Pseudopodia and Flagella ?
  109. cix) Give two difference between fungi and fungi like protists ?
  110. cx) What are Aflatoxins ?
  111. cxi) Give an example of water molds , why it is notorious ?
  112. cxii) What are carnivores fungi ? Give one example .
  113. cxiii) What are lichens ?
  114. cxiv) Write two difference between spores and conidia ?
  115. cxv) Differentiate between plasmogamy and karyogamy ?
  116. cxvi) Define phyletic lineage ?
  117. cxvii) Differentiate between bryophytes and tracheophytes ?
  118. cxviii) Write four characteristics of bryophytes ?
  119. cxix) What are amphibious plants of the world ?
  120. cxx) Name the subdivisions of division tracheophyta ( Vascular Plants ) ?
  121. cxxi) What are frounds in which group they are found ?
  122. cxxii) What is webbing ?
  123. cxxiii) Write the steps involved in seed evolution ?
  124. cxxiv) What grade radiata ?
  125. cxxv) Define bioenergetics ?
  126. cxxvi) What is ATP ?
  127. cxxvii) Differentiate between ingestion and egestion ?
  128. cxxviii) Define assimilation ?
  129. cxxix) Enlist the steps involved in holozoic nutrition ?
  130. cxxx) How adipose tissue is formed ?
  131. cxxxi) What is ulcer ?
  132. cxxxii) Write a note on botulism ?
  133. cxxxiii) Write down the disadvantages of gas exchange in water environment ?
  134. cxxxiv) Describe lung capacities ?
  135. cxxxv) What are peroxisomes ? Give their functions .
  136. cxxxvi) What are lenticels ? Write their use .
  137. cxxxvii) What is vocal cord ? Give its functions .
  138. cxxxviii) What is open circulatory system ? Give an example .
  139. cxxxix) What is the cure of leucaemia ?
  140. cxl) What is cell – mediated and humoral immune response ?
  141. cxli) What is Passive Immunity ?
  142. cxlii) Write down importance of Yeast ?
  143. cxliii) What is Reindeer moss ?
  144. cxliv) What are essential and non – essential parts of flower ?
  145. cxlv) What is the role of sepals and petals in flower ?
  146. cxlvi) What is formed by mesoderm and Endoderm ?
  147. cxlvii) What is Pseudocoelom ?
  148. cxlviii) What are pseudocoelomates and coelomates ?
  149. cxlix) What are gemmules ?
  150. cl) What are spicules ?
  151. cli) What are hook worms ?
  152. clii) Write scientific and common names of two intestinal parasites of man from Phylum Aschelminthes ?
  153. cliii) Name three classes of phylum Annelida ?
  154. cliv) What are jointed appendages ?
  155. clv) What is haemocoel ?
  156. clvi) What are jointed appendages ?
  157. clvii) Discuss about the brain of octopus ?
  158. clviii) How are echinoderms related to hemichordates ?
  159. clix) Write down affinities of echinoderms with hemichordates ?
  160. clx) What is the Notochord ? Write down its function ?
  161. clxi) Give any four characteristics of reptilian ?
  162. clxii) What is Diaphragm ? In which group of animals it is found ?
  163. clxiii) What are metatherian animals ?
  164. clxiv) Why are eitherians called placental mammals ?
  165. clxv) What is FAD ?
  166. clxvi) What is Kreb Cycle ?
  167. clxvii) What happens to Pyruvie Acid before enetering into Kreb’s cycle ?
  168. clxviii) What is Anaerobic Respiration ?
  169. clxix) What are carotenoids ?
  170. clxx) What are pigments ?
  171. clxxi) Structurally a chlorophyll is divided into how many parts ?
  172. clxxii) What is Porphyrin ring ?
  173. clxxiii) Give functions of NADP reductase ?
  174. clxxiv) Differentiate between Saprophytic and Parasitic mode of nutrition ?
  175. clxxv) Name three pairs of salivary glands with their location ?
  176. clxxvi) Name types of cells present in gastric glands ?
  177. clxxvii) Why are stomach produce more gastric juice if we have more proteins in our diet ?
  178. clxxviii) Enlist gastric glands with their secretion in man ?
  179. clxxix) Give names of hormones secreted by digestive systems ( GUT ) ?
  180. clxxx) Differentiate between secretin and gastrin ?
  181. clxxxi) Enlist enzyme secreted from jejunum ?
  182. clxxxii) Write the role of human pancreas in digestion ?
  183. clxxxiii) What is bile ? Give its functions .
  184. clxxxiv) Give the properties of respiratory surface ?
  185. clxxxv) Mention at least two properties of respiratory surfaces in animals ?
  186. clxxxvi) What is operculum ?
  187. clxxxvii) Differentiate between inspiration and expiration ?
  188. clxxxviii) Write down the factors of intake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide by blood ?
  189. clxxxix) How pH affects the capacity of haemoglobin to combine with oxygen ?
  190. cxc) What are the important factors which affect the capacity of hemoglobin to combine with oxygen ?
  191. cxci) How CO2 effects the combining capacity of hemoglobin with oxygen ?
  192. cxcii) Name some respiratory disorders and explain one ?
  193. cxciii) Give two characters of diving animals ?
  194. cxciv) Give % age of O2 and CO2 inhaled and exhaled air ( in adult human ) ?
  195. cxcv) Differentiate between diffusion and osmosis ?
  196. cxcvi) What is Facilitated diffusion ? Give its function .
  197. cxcvii) State pressure flow theory . Who proposed it first ?
  198. cxcviii) How sieve tubes and companion cells communicate?
  199. cxcix) Where the human’s heart is located in the body ? Give names of layers that surround the heart ?
  200. cc) What is myocardial infarction ( Heart attack ) ? Write its causes.
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